Phonology


Summary

Prosody; Vowels; De-nasalisation;Development of the Semi-Vowels; The Yat; Consonants; Palatalizations;Reductions; Metatheses


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Homework

All four homework assignments with the following lexical list. Use this Indo-European database as well as Vasmer's dictionary. HW #4 (due end of week 4): Establish PIE sources for all vowels on the list; HW #5 (due end of week 5): Find as many present-day Slavic equivalents of the lexemes from the list and explain the development of all vowels; HW #6 (due end of week 6): Establish PIE sources for all consonants on the list; HW #7 (due end of week 7): Explain the consonantal and distribution changes from CSL to the present-day Slavic languages.


Quiz - in class

Multiple choice on phonologicaldevelopment (first half hour of week 8)


PIE Vocalism

 

a) Full monophtongs

 

Front

 

Back

 

High

ǐ

 

ǔ

< reduced diphtongs

Medium

ĕ

 

ǒ

primary vowels

Low

 

ǎ

 

primary vowel

 

 

Front

 

Back

 

High

ī

 

ū

< reduced diphtongs

Medium

ē

 

ō

primary vowels

Low

 

ā

 

primary vowels

 

b) Semivowels (schwas)

 

ə1 schwa primum/schwaIndo-Germanicum < reduced long primary vowels

ə2 schwa secundum < reduced short primary vowels

 

c) Diphtongs

 

c1) Vocalic

 

 

Front 2nd part

Back 2nd Part

Long 1st part

ē, ō, ā

ē, ō, ā

Short 1st part

ĕ, ǒ, ǎ

ĕ, ǒ, ǎ

 

c2) Mixed

 

 

Nasal 2nd Part

Liquid 2nd Part

Long 1st part

ēm, ōm, ām, ēn, ōn, ān

ēr, ōr, ār, ēl, ōl, āl

Short 1st part

ĕm, ǒm, ǎm, ĕn, ǒn, ǎn

ĕr, ǒr, ǎr, ĕl, ǒl, ǎl

 

d) Vocalic Resonants (only in non-vocalic environments)

 

 

Short

Long

 

Nasal

m̥̆, n̥̆

m̥̄, n̥̄

< reduced mixed diphtongs

Liquid

r̥̆, l̥̆

r̥̄, l̥̄

< reduced diphtongs

 

27 inherent units

54 with suprasegmental features

 

PIE Consonantism

 

 

lab

den

vel

pal

lab-vel

nas-lab

nas-lin

liq-lat

liq-vibr

gli-lab

gli-lin

voiceless stops

p

t

k

k

m

n

l

r

voiced stops

b

d

g

g

 

 

 

 

 

 

voiceless aspirated stops

ph

th

kh

ḱh

kh

 

 

 

 

 

 

voiced aspirated stops

bh

dh

gh

ǵh

gh

 

 

 

 

 

 

voiceless fricative

 

s

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

voiced fricative

 

(z)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28 units

27/28 vowel/consonat ratio = .96

 

Common Slavic Vocalism

 

a)    Full Vowels

 

 

 

Front

 

Back

 

High

+nas

i

y

u

+nas

Mid

ę

e

 

o

ǫ

Low

 

 

a

 

 

e,o short, all others long

 

b)   Semivowels

 

Front

Back

ь

ъ

 

c)   The jat

ѣ (ĕ)

 

d)   Vocaic r and l

 

 

Front

Back

Vibrant

ь̯r̥

ъ̯r̥

Lateral

ь̯l̥

ъ̯l̥

  

14 units

 

Common Slavic Consonantism

 

 

Labial

Dental

Palatal

Velar

 

Voiceless

 

Voiced

Voiceless

 

Voiced

Voiceless

 

Voiced

Voiceless

 

Voiced

Stop

p

 

b

t

 

d

t

 

d

k

 

g

Spirant

 

 

 

s

 

z

š (s)

 

ž

 

x

 

Affricate

 

 

 

c

 

Ʒ

č (c)

 

(Ʒ’)

 

 

 

Nasal

 

m

 

 

n

 

 

ń

 

 

 

 

Liquid

 

 

 

vibrant
lateral

r  l

 

 

r l

 

 

 

 

 

26 (23) units

10/26 vowel/consratio = .54

 

The Development of Phonology

 

Proto Indo-European (PIE) > Early Proto-Slavic (EPS)> Late Common Slavic (LCS) > Slavic languages and dialects.

 

Here: PIE > LCS> Slavic languages and dialects

 

PIE, Major Characteristics:

a)    Rich and diversified vocalism (full, reduced vowels, diphtongs)

b)    Quantity independent from quality (e.g., a can be both long and short)

c)    High Vowel vs. Consonant Ratio

d)    Rich back consonants oppositions

e)    Labialization

f)       Aspiration

g)    Both closed and open syllables

 

PIE > LCS, Major Lines of Development

a)    Quantitatively and qualitatively reduced vocalism (esp. monophtogization)

b)    Quality linked with quantity

c)    Nasalization of the vowels

d)    Deaspiration

e)    Depalatalization of the velars

f)       New palatalizations and jotations

g)    Oppositionsshift toward the front consonants

h)    Opensyllables only (e.g., PIE sūnǔs vs. LCS synъ)

 

PIE > Slavic languages, Major Lines ofDevelopment

a)    Further simplification of the vocalism (reductions of the semivowels, jat, nasals in most languages)

b)    Mostly quantitative consonantal changes

c)    Open and closed syllables (e.g., LCS synъ vs. Pol.syn)

 

Development of the Vocalism

 

LCS e

 

1)

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

ĕ

> 

e

bherō > berǫ

Lat. fero, lit. beriù


2)

LCS

 

SL

Language; Condition

Example

e

> 

e

All languages;
Default

S-Cr berem, Rus. берю

e

> 

o

Rus,Bel;
_/+stress/[hard consonant]

Rus. сёла

e

> 

o

Pol;
_{t,d,n,s,z,
ł,r}

Pol. żona, czoło

e

> 

()o

Sor;
_[hard consonant]

U.Sor. čoło, L.Sor. coło

 

 

Logic of the exceptions regressive assimilation (the first element adjusts to the second):

[soft vowel][hard consonant] >[palatalization][hard vowel][hard consonant]

 

LCS o

 

1)

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

ǒ

> 

o

oku̯- > oko

Lat. okulis

ǎ

> 

o

ar- > orǫ

Lat. aro, Lit ariù

 

 

  

2)  

LCS

 

SL

Language; Condition

Example

o

> 

o

All languages;
Default

S-Cr oko, Pol. oko

o

> 

u

WSL;
[cons]_[cons][end of syllable]

Cze. vůl, vola, Pol. gród, grodu

Logic of the exception influence of the closed syllable

 

LCS a

 

1)

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

ā

> 

a

mātēr > mati

Lat. māter, Ltv. māte

ō

> 

a

dō- > dati

Lat.  dōnum

 

 

 

2)

LCS

 

SL

Language; Condition

Example

a

> 

a

All languages;
Default

S-Cr mati, Rus. мать

 

Linking quality to quantity

 

 

short >

o

< short

 

a

 

 

 

o

 

long >

a

< long

 

 

LCS u

 

1)

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

a, ou̯[cons/end of the word]

> 

u

as- > ucho

Lat. auris, Lit. ausìs

 

 

 

2)  

LCS

 

SL

Language; Condition

Example

u

> 

u

All languages;
Default

S-Cr oko, Pol. oko

u

> 

ou

Cze;
_/+long/

Cze. soud

 

LCS i

 

1) 

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

ī

> 

i

gīu̯s > živъ

Lat. vīvus

e

> 

i

u̯ei̯dos > vidъ

Lit. véidas

o, a[end of the word]

> 

i

stoloi̯ > stoli

Lit. stalaĩ

 

 

 

 

 

2)

LCS

 

SL

Language; Condition

Example

i

> 

i

All languages;
Default

S-Cr piti, Pol. pić

i

> 

y

East Slavic and Lechitic;
[hard consonant]_

Pol. stoły, Rus. столы

 

LCS y

 

1)

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

ū

> 

y

tū - > ty

Lat. tū

 

 

 

2)

LCS

 

SL

Language; Condition

Example

y

> 

i

South Slavic

S-Cr biti

y

> 

y

East Slavic, Lechitic, Sorbian

Pol. być, Rus. быть

 

y

> 

/- pal/ i

Standard Czech; Slovak

Cze. syn [sin]

  

LCS ъ and ь

 

1) 

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

ǔ

> 

ъ

snǔsos -> snъxa

Lat. nurus

a,o > ə2

> 

ъ

ə2ǵ- -> vъz-

Ltv. uz < az

ǐ

> 

ь

mǐgla -> mьgla

Lit. miglà

e > ə2

> 

ь

kə2tur- > čьtyre

Lit. keturì

 

 

 

 

  

2)

Strong vs. Weak Semivowels

 

A Semivowel is strong in the syllable preceding a weak semivowel. In all other positions a semivowel is weak, e

 

1

 

2

 

s

ъ

н

ъ

- >  Rus. сон

 

3

 

 

 

s

ъ

n

a

- >  Rus. сна

 

strong(before 2)

2,3 weak (all other positions, e.g., before a full vowel, end of the world, etc.)

 

Weak ъ,ь > 0 (cca 11th century)

Strong ъ,ь have the following lines of development:

 

a.    Semivowels retained or they yield full vowels (Bulgarian, Slovene)

b.    Semivowels yield full vowels, and so:

b1. They merge before turning into full vowels(Serbo-Croatian),

b2. They keep separate inherent features (East Slavic, Macedonian),

b3. They keep separate contextual values (West Slavic)

 

Examples:

a.    Bul.сън < сънъ, ден < dьnь

b1. S-Cr. san < сънъ, dan < dьnь

b2. Rus. сoн < сънъ, день < dьnь

b3. Pol. sen < сънъ, dzień < dьnь

 

Present-day alternations (a:0, e:0, o:0, d:dz) as a result of the development of the semivowels

 

 

Nom.

Gen.

Rus.

сон, день

с0на, д0ня

Pol.

sen, dzień

s0na, d0nia

S-Cr.

san, dan

s0na, dana (hist. d0ne)

 

 

LCS ѣ

1) 

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

ē

> 

ѣ

sēmn̥t > sѣmę

Lat. sēmen

oi̯, ai̯

> 

ѣ

lai̯u̯os > lѣvъ

Lat. laevus

 

 

 

2)

Numerous isoglosses dividing both Slavic languages and their dialects

 

East Slavic:

Rus, Bel.  ѣ > e (ё) звезда звёзды; Not all Russian dialects follow this development

Ukr. ѣ > i хлiб 

 

West Slavic:

Pol. ѣ [t,d,n,s,z,ł,r] > a, ѣ[!t,d,n,s,z,ł,r] > e biały:bielić, las:w lesie

Slov. ѣ̄ /long/ > ie biely, ѣ̆ /short/ > e pena

Cze. ѣ > e (default) seno, [t,d,n]ѣ > e tělo, [p,b,v,m] ѣ > ie běh,[!t,d,n,p,b,v,m] ѣ̄ /long/ > í vím

Sor. ѣ > ie USor. běh, LSor. běg

 

South Slavic

Bul. ѣ > a(default), ѣ[syllablewith a soft vowel] > e бял:бели, голям:големи; Not all Bulgarian dialects follow

Mac. ѣ > e seno, mleko

Slov. ѣ > ė(narrow e) mesto

S-Cr. ѣ > e hleb, lep or ѣ̄ /long/ > ije bijeli, [l,n]ѣ̆ /short/ > e ljepota, [!l,n]ѣ̆ /short/ > je pjena;Not all S-Cr dialects follow

OCS. retains ѣ

 

LCS ę and ǫ

 

 1)

PIE

 

LCS

Example

Proof

en,em[cons]

> 

ę

penktos > pętь

Lit. peñktas

en[0]

> 

ę

men > mę

Pind. mām

m̥, n̥ > im, in > ьm, ьn

> 

ę

neu̯n̥to > devętь

Lit. deviñtas

on,an,om,an[cons]

> 

ǫ

ronka > rǫka

Lit. rankà

ōn, ān[0]

> 

ǫ

ronkān > rǫkǫ

Opr. ronkān

, > um, un > ъm, ъn

> 

ǫ

dm̥ti > dǫti

Lit. dùmti

 

 

 

 

 

 

2)

East Slavic

ǫ > u, ę > a Rus. рука, пять

 

West Slavic

Cze, Slo: ǫ > u (>ou in Cze) Slo, Cze ruka, Slo súd, Cze soud

Cze. ę > e (default) deset, [t,d,n]ę > e jehně, [p,b,v,m]ę > ie pět, [!t,d,n,p,b,v,m] ę̄ /long/ >a/í maso/vzíti

Slo. ę > a (default) desat, [b,p,v,m]ę > ä/ia mäso/piaty, [t,d,l,n] ę > a tah

Sor. follow the Cze/Slo pattern (ǫ > u, varied reflexes of the ę)

Pol. Retains both phonemic values but in different contexts. The neural network model of the change.

 

bottom layer

 

ǫ

 

 

ę

 

 

/

 

\

/

 

\

hidden layer

ǭ

 

ǫ̆

‘ǭ

 

‘ǫ̆

 

\

 

\

/

 

/

top layer

 

ǫ

<-

->

ę

 

 

e.g. dǫbъ > dąb, rǫka > ręka,pamętь > pamięć, mѣsęcь > miesiąc

 

South Slavic

Slov. ǫ > o, ę > e roka, pet (the only language with direct denazalization)

S-Cr. ǫ > u, ę > e ruka, pet

Mac. ǫ > a, ę > e рака, пет

Bul. ǫ > ъ, ę > e ръка, пет

 

LCS ь̯r̥, ъ̯r̥, ь̯l̥, ъ̯l̥

 1)

Unclear, probably from PIE r̥, l̥ via BSL [front semivowel]{r,l}, [back semivowel]{r,l}

Secondary groups in South and West Slavic with thesemivocalic element after the liquid 

2)

East Slavic
 ь̯r̥ > er, ъ̯r̥ >or, ь̯l̥ > ol, ъ̯l̥ > ol Rus. горло, смерт, волк, долгий

South Slavic

S-Cr. ь̯r̥ > r̥, ъ̯r̥ >r, ь̯l̥ > u, ъ̯l̥ > u grlo, smrt, vuk,dug

Slov. ь̯r̥ > r̥, ъ̯r̥ >r̥, ь̯l̥ > ou̯, ъ̯l̥ > ou̯ grlo, smrt, volk,dolg

Mac. ь̯r̥ > r̥, ъ̯r̥ >r̥, ь̯l̥ > ol, ъ̯l̥ > ol drvo, smrt, volna,dolg

Bul. ь̯r̥, ъ̯r̥> ъr/rъ, ь̯l̥, ъ̯l̥ > ъl/lъ връх, върба, жлъч, мълча

West Slavic

Cze., Slo. Retain both r̥, and l̥ (e.g., Cze. smrt,vlk) with some decomposing as exceptions in Czech (esp. in the case of the l̥, e.g. žlutý)

Pol., Sor. Decompositions and methateses dependend on both inherent features and the context

Pol.

ъ̯r̥ > ar

ь̯r̥ > ež (default) wierzba, [t,d,n,s,z,ł]ь̯r̥ > ar martwy

[!t,d,s,č,ž]ъ̯l̥> eł pełny, [t,d,s]ъ̯l̥ > ło /short/ łu /long/słońce, długi, [č,ž]ъ̯l̥> oł /short/ ół /long/czołn, żółty,

ь̯l̥ > il wilk

 

Shift from quantitative to qualitative oppositions in the vocalism

 

 

short >

o

a

 

 

 

long >

a

 

short >

o

o

 

 

 

long >

a

 

short >

e

e

 

 

 

long >

ѣ

 

long >

i

i

 

 

 

short >

ь

 

long >

y

u

 

 

 

short >

ъ

 

Phonotactical changes

 

·        Open syllable principle:
Every syllable has to end in a vowel

This common Slavic principle has been retained only inOCS. This principle triggers metatheses (with resulting vowel at the end of the syllable) and the monophtongization of the diphtongs (i.e., the diphtongs, which end in a non-vowel component are replaced with vocalic monophtongs, see examples above)

 

Metatheses of the liquids (groups ort, olt, tort,tolt, tert, telt)

 

Groups [0/cons]{o,e}{r,l}[cons]

 

PIE

South Slavic

Czecho-Slovak

Lechitic-Sorbian

East Slavic

or

ra

ra

ro (ar)

oro

er

rѣ

rѣ

re

ere

ol

la (al)

la

lo

olo

el

lѣ

lѣ

le (lo)

olo

 

Examples:

 

*gord (Lit. gar͂das) >

S-Cr. grad, Cze. hrad, Pol. gród,Rus. город

*berg (Germ. Berg) >

S-Cr. br(ij)eg, Cze. břeh,Pol. brzeg, Rus. берег

*golv (Lit. galvà)

S-Cr. glava, Cze. hlava, Pol. głowa,Rus. голова

*melk (Lat. melca) >

S-Cr. ml(ij)eko, Cze. mléko,Pol. mleko, Rus. молоко

 

Patterns:

a.    pure metathesis (Lechitic and Sorbian),

b.    metathesis with lengthening (South and Czech-Slovak)

c.     development of an additional vocalic element (East)

 

 See here how South-Slavic influences compete with East Slavic reflexes. This situation is somewhat similar to Germanic vs. Norman in English, see here

 

Development of the Consonantism

Principal tendencies:

·        deaspiration

·        delabialization

·        palatalization

·         shift toward the front of the mouth cavity 

. See this [page about Grimms law] to compare it with the situation in Germanic languages (hence in English)

LCS p,b,d,t (contination and simple deaspiration)

PIE

 

LCS

Examples

p, ph

> 

p

pol- > polvъ; sphǒi̯nā > pѣna

b,bh

> 

b

būk- > bykъ; bherō > berǫ

d,dh

> 

d

ḱrd- > sь̯r̥dьce; dhūm > dymъ

t,th

> 

t

tū > ty; ponth > pǫtь

 

LCS s,z(continuation, shifted depalatalization)

PIE

 

LCS

Examples

s, ḱ, ḱh

> 

s

stol- > stolъ; ḱolm- > solma;  

(z), ǵ, ǵh

> 

z

nizdo (zd < sd <sə2d) > gnѣzdo; ǵnō- > znati, ǵhem- > zima

 

LCS k,g(continuation, simple deaspiration, simple delabialization)

PIE

 

LCS

Examples

k, ku̯, kh, kh

> 

k

būk- > bykъ; u̯l̥kos > vь̯l̥kъ

g, g, gh, gh

> 

g

bhog- > bogъ; ghostis > gostь; gōus > go-vędo; snogh- > snѣgъ

         

LCS x (qualitatively new element, context-dependentshift toward theback of the mouth cavity)

PIE

 

LCS

Examples

{i/u/r/k}s{!p/t/k}

> 

{i/u/r/k}x{!p/t/k}

mus- > mъxъ; aus- > uxo;

Slavic g > h shift

Regional(Czecho-Slovak, Upper Sorbian, Ukrainian, Belorussian; Russian, S-Cr, Slovene dialects), e.g.

Cze. hlas, hovado, noha,

Slov. hlas, hovädo, noha

Usor. hłos, hłova, noha

Ukr. голова [h], голос [h], нога[..h..]        

Palatalizations

1. FirstPalatalization (regressive)

After s > x, afterdelabialization and deaspiration, before the monophtongization

{k,g,x}[front vowel = ь, e, ѣ (! <oi̯), i (! <oi̯), ę, ь̯r̥, ь̯]> {č ́, ž ́, š ́}[frontvowel = ь, e,ѣ (! <o), i (! <o), ę, ь̯r̥, ь̯l̥]

ki- > čьto (Lat. quid)

ghl̥tos > žь̯lt̥ъ (Lit. gel̃das)

myxь > myšь (Lat.mūs)

Development towardhardening in modern Slavic languages

The first palatalization of the groups sk, zg (major isoglosses dividing Slavic languages and dialects)

{sk,zg} [front vowel = ь, e, ѣ (! <o), i (! <o), ę, ь̯r̥, ь̯]> {š ́č ́, ž ́dž ́}[front vowel = ь, e,ѣ (! <o), i (! <o), ę, ь̯r̥, ь̯l̥]

Development in Slavic languages:

East Slavic:

š ́č ́ retained, ž ́dž ́ >various reflexes, most commonly ž ́ž ́

Rus. пищаль, дрожжи

Lechitic

Hardening š ́č ́ > šč,  ž ́dž ́ > ždž

Pol. piszczel, drożdże

Czecho-Slovak, Sorbian

Softening š ́č ́ > šć,  ž ́dž ́ > žđ

Cze. pišt'al, droždí

South Slavic

Major differentiation of the dialects

East South Slavic and some S-Cr dialects: št, žd

S-Cr: pištaljka, drožda

Other S-Cr dialects: šć, žj; šč, žj; št, žđ

Slovene: šč, ž

Slovene dialects: šč, ždž; š,ž

2. The second palatalization (regressive)

After the monophtongization

{k,g,x}{ѣ (<oi̯), i (<oi̯)̥} > {c ́, dz ́, s ́}{ѣ ( <oi̯), i (<oi̯)̥}

človѣkъ: človѣk+i > človѣci

bogъ: bog+i > bodzi

duxъ:dux+i > dusi

The second palatalization of the groups sk, zg

{sk,zg}{ѣ ( <oi̯), i (<oi̯)̥} > {sc ́, zdz ́}{ѣ ( <oi̯), i (<oi̯)̥}

Retained or simplified (st, zd) in South and East Slavic, e.g. S-Cr.daska:dasci, OCS. dręzga: dręzdѣ

Merged with the results of the first palatalization in the West andBelorussian (i.e., š ́č ́, ž ́dž)

The second palatalization of the groups kwѣ, gwѣ

Indirect palatalization East and South Slavic only:

 

kwѣ

gwѣ

Rus.

цвет

звезда

S-Cr.

cv(ij)et

zvijezda

Pol.

kwiat

gwiazda

 

3. The third palatalization (progressive)

{ь,i,ę} {k,g,x}{![cons],ъ,y}> {ь,i,ę} {c ́,dz ́,s ́}{![cons],ъ,y}

ovьka > ovьca

stьga > stьdza

vьxo > vse

Alternations as results of the palatalizations:

S-Cr vojnik:vojniče:vojnici (k:č:c);lovac:lovče:lovci (c:č)

Nom. Sg.

 

vojni

k

 

 

Voc. Sg.

 

vojni

č

e

1st

Nom. Pl.

 

vojni

c

i

2nd

Nom. Sg.

lov

a

c

 

3rd

Voc. Sg.

lov

0

č

e

1st

Nom. Pl.

lov

0

c

i

2nd

Jotations

Differentiate Slavic from Baltic languages (where jotations are found only sporadically in Lithuanian).

Dental Siprants

{s,z}j> {š ́,ž ́}

pišǫ: pisati

vęžǫ: vęzati

Hardening in most Slavic languages and dialects

Velars

{k,g,x}j> {č ́, š ́, ž ́}

plačь:plakati

duša:duxъ

lъžǫ:lъgati

Hardening in most Slavic languages and dialects (č > c in Lower Sorbian,remains soft in Russian and Upper Sorbian)

{sk,zg}j > {š ́č ́, ž ́dž ́}

iš ́čǫ:iskati

zviždǫ:zvizg-

Further development as in the case of the first palatalization describedabove

Alveolars

{l,n,r}j > {l, ń, r}

Further development:

ń retained: S-Cr konj, Pol. koń, Rus. конь

l le ł

a. Reduction to one value:

Cze. has only l

b. Reduction to twovalues:

S-Cr. has l le

Rus. has l ł

c. Reduction and extensionof the scale

Pol. and Slo. have le

r

Retained in Рус., Ukr., Sor, OCS andpartially Bul, e.g. Rus. море

Hardening in Bel., Slov,S-Cr., and Mac, e.g. S-Cr more

Decomposition in Slov(before a vowel), e.g. morje

Shift in Pol. and Cze,i.e. r > rž (Czech) > ž (Polish), e.g. Cze pekař, Pol. piekarz

Labials

{b,p,v,m}j > {b,p,v,m}

L epentheticum in East and South Slavic

Rus: куплю, грабли, земля, ловлю

S-Cr: kupljen, grablje, zemlja, ulovljen

Pol. kupiony, grabie, ziemia,  łowię

Dental Stops

Major isoglossesdifferentiating Slavic languages and dialects

{t,d}j> {t,d}

svѣt'a, med'a

East Slavic:

č ́, ž Rus.свеча,межа

West Slavic:

c, dz Pol. świeca, miedza

South Slavic:

Bul., OCS:

št, žd, e.g. Bul. свещ, межда

Mac.

ќ, ģ e.g., свеќа, меѓа

Standard S-Cr

ć, đ, e.g. sv(ij)eća, međa

S-Cr ča dialect

ć, j, e.g. svića, meja

Slo and S-Cr kaj dialect

č, j, e.g. sveča, meja

{st,zd}j > {š ́č ́, ž ́dž ́}

pustjǫ > puš ́č́ǫ

ѣzdjǫ > ѣž ́dž́ǫ

Further development just like sk, zg above

{kt,gt,xt}i > {t}

rekti > ret'i

mogti > mot'i

verxti > vrѣt'i

Further development as tj above

Reductions

Principle of risingsonority

Mostly regressive reductions of the sequences violating the principle

ps, bs, ts, ds > s, e.g. opsa > osa (Lat. vespa)

ks, gs > x, e.g., tēkxon > tѣxъ

tsl, dsl > sl, e.g., čistlo > čislo

tsm > sm, e.g., čistmę > čismę

kst, gst > st, e.g., rēkste > rѣste

pt, bt > t, e.g., grebti > greti

pn, bn, tn, dn > n, e.g., sъpnos > sъnъ

dm, tm > m, e.g., dadmi > damь

bv > b, e.g.,ob-volko > oblako

tt > st, e.g., metti > mesti

tl, dl> l (only East and South), e.g., Rus. плела, рало, Pol. plotła, radło, S-Cr plela,ralo

[cons][cons] > [cons], e.g. oќsis > ossis > osь

Positional softness in Slavic

Retained in the East,e.g., Rus. дедушка [deduška]

Depalatalization in the South, e.g., S-Cr. deda [deda]

Partial preservation inthe West, e.g. Pol. Pol. dziadek [đadek]

Prosthetic consonants in Slavic

Prosthetic v and j

je > o shift in East Slavic, Rus. озеро, олень, S-Cr jezero, jelen, Pol. jezioro, jeleń

Prosody

Quality:
CSL: intensity, length, pitch =>

West Southern - retained
East, Polish and East Southern - reduced to intensity
Other Western - intensity and length Distribution:
CSL: free => East, Slo, S-Cr, Bul, - free or relatively free Other - fixed